Culture in Conflict
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<br> <font size="5"><font face="monotype corsiva"><font color="#07093F">What artistic and literary trends emerged in the 1920's?</font color></font face></font size> <br><Br>
Summary Of Research
<font face="century gothic"> There were a myriad amount of literary and artistic trends that emerged from the 1920's. For starters the literary <br><br> trends that emerged are also endless for example during this time many writers were experimenting with stream <br><br> of consciousness where a writer appears to probe a character's random thoughts and feelings without imposing <br><br> any logic or order. In the artistic trends there was a new direction in painting new styles such as cubism where 3-D <Br><br> objects were broken into fragments and composed into complex patterns of angles and planes. In addition there is <Br><br> abstract art which is composed of lines, colors, and shapes with no recognizable subject matter at all. Additionally <Br><br> there was surrealism which is a movement that attempts to portray the workings of the unconscious mind. </font face>
<font face="century gothic"> Scientific Discoveries: By the early 1900's, the Polish-born French Scientist Marie Curie and others were experimenting with radioactivity. They found that the atoms of certain elements, such as radium and uranium, spontaneously release charged particles. As scientists studied radioactivity further, they discovered that it could change atoms of one element into atoms of another. Such findings proved that atoms were not solid and indivisible. 1905 the German-born physicist Albert Einstein advanced his theories of relativity. Einstein argued that measurements of space and time are not absolute but are determined by many factors, some of them unknown. This idea raised questions about Newtonian science, which compared the universe to a machine operating according to absolute law. In the postwar years many scientists came to accept the theories of relativity. Too much of the general public, however, Einstein's ideas seemed to reinforce the unsettling sense of old certainties crumbling and a universe whirling beyond the understanding of human reason. The Austrian physician Sigmund Freyd also challenged faith in reason. He suggested that the subconscious mind drives much human behavior. Freud said that in civilized society, learned values such as morality and reason help people repress, or check, powerful urges. But an individual feels constant tension between repressed drives and social training. This tension, argued Freud, may cause psychological illness or physical symptoms, such as paralysis or blindness. Freud pioneered psychoanalysis. He analyzed dreams for clues to subconscious desires and developed ways to treat mental illnesses. His ideas had an impact far beyond medicine. Freud's work led artists and writers to explore the subconscious mind.
The New Literature: In the 1920's, war novels, poetry, plays, and memoirs flowed off the presses. Works like Remarque’s All Quiet on the Western Front exposed the grim horrors of modern warfare. Other writers heaped scorn of blundering military and political leaders. Their work reflected a powerful disgust with war that would color the European scene for decades. To many postwar writers, the war symbolized the moral breakdown of western civilization. In 1922, the American-born English poet T.S. Eliot published The Waste Land. This long poem portrays the modern world as spiritually empty and barren. In The Sun also rises, the American novelist Ernest Hemmingway shows the rootless wanderings of young people who lack deep conviction. As Freud's ideas became more and more popular, some writers experimented with Stream of consciousness. In this technique, a writer appears to probe a character's random thoughts and feelings without imposing any logic or order. In novels like Mrs. Dalloway, British novelist Virginia Woolf used streams of consciousness to explore the hidden thoughts of people as they go through the ordinary actions of their everyday lives. Te Irish novelist James Joyce went even further. In Finnegan’s Wake, he explores the inner mind of a hero who remains sound asleep throughout the novel. To convey the freedom and playfulness of the unconscious mind, Joyce invented many words including some like Bababadalgharaghtakamminarronnkonnbronntonnerronntuonnthunntrovarrhounawnskawntoohoohoordenenthurnuk, 100 letters long!
Women's Lives: For most women, the postwar period brought limited progress. During the war, women had held a wide range of jobs. Although most women returned to the home when the war ended, their war work helped them win the vote in many western countries. A few women were elected to public office, such as Texas governor Miriam Ferguson or Lady Nancy Astor, the first woman to serve in the British Parliament. By the 1920's, labor-saving devices had become common in middle class homes. Washing machines, vacuum cleaners, and canned foods freed women from many time-consuming household chores. Some women found paid work outside the home. Others took volunteer jobs, providing social services or raising funds for charities. In the new atmosphere of emancipation, women pursued careers in many arenas from sports to the arts. Women golfers, tennis players, swimmers, and pilots set new records. Women worked as newspaper reporters, published bestselling novels, and won recognition for their artwork. Most professions, though, were still dominated by men. Women doing the same work as men earned much less.
Social Classes: The war had changed social values and the class system itself. In Europe, noble families had lost sons in the fighting, while Russia's noble classes were destroyed by the revolution. Peasants have suffered heavy losses. After the war, many filtered into the cities, adding the voices to protests against economic conditions. For many factory workers, wages improved in the postwar decades. Wealthy capitalists prospered in the boom times of the 1920's. The lower middle class, however, often felt pinched. It resented the successes of big business and the rising wages of workers. As the Great Depression struck, many people from this class were attracted to radical right-wing groups </font face>
<FONT FACE="CENTURY GOTHIC"> Scientific Discoveries: In the early 1900's scientist Marie Curey did many experiments and made many breakthroughs with radioactivity. Albert Einstein did a lot of work with relativity and argued that the measurements of space and time are not absolute but are determined by many factors. In addition Sigmund Freud challenged faith in reason. He suggested the subconscious mind drives much human behavior.
Modern Art and Architecture: In the early 1900's, many western artists rejected traditional styles. Instead of trying to reproduce the real world, they explored other dimensions of color, line, and shape. Painters like Henri Matisse, outraged the public with their bold colors and odd distortions.
The New Literature: In the 1920's, war novels, poetry, plays, and memoirs flowed off the presses. Works like Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front exposed the grim horrors of modern warfare. Other writers heaped scorn of blundering military and political leaders. Their work reflected a powerful disgust with war that would color the European scene for decades.
A Changing Society:In the aftermath of World War I, many people yearned to return to "normalcy" to life as it had been before 1914. But rapid social changes would make it hard to turn back the clock.
Women's Lives: For most women, the postwar period brought limited progress. By the 1920's, labor-saving devices had become common in middle class homes homes. In the new atmosphere of emancipation, women pursued careers in many arenas from sports to the arts.
Social Classes: The war had changed social values and the class system itself. The lower middle class, however, often felt pinched. It resented the successes of big business and the rising wages of workers. </FONT FACE>
<font face="century gothic"> Obviously the early 1920's was definitely a culture in conflict. Every ones views on everything was changing...drastically. Artists moved away from the traditional way to paint and did crazy abstract art that was very new and unknown to people in that time. Writers and poets also tried new writing techniques like stream of consciousness and took chances people usually didn't take. Not to mention all the science breakthroughs that went on like the study of radioactivity, relativity, and probing the mind. The views of women were also altered for example the women who were known as flappers were the symbol of the jazz age and were the liberated young women. So in conclusion the early 1900's was a time of change and a culture in conflict. </font face>
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