The Aftermath of World War I

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What was the aftermath of World War I?


>== Summary of Research ==



World War I changed every nation involved in a good or bad way. It initially ended in November 11, 1918. The war ended when nations decided to have an armistice, which is an agreement to stop fighting. Also, the Versailles treaty also helped stop the war. The treaty was signed in 1919. Many countries like Germany lost many of its lands to other nations. And nations like Austro-Hungary gained their independence.


Content

Archduke Franz Ferdinand By: Krista Mada

World War I could be recognized as two other names such as The First World War, and The Great War. It was a global war which took place in Europe from 1914 to 1918. The cause of the war was the June 28, 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Ferdinand heir of Austria-Hungarian throne announced that he will visit Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. At the same time Bosnia was also under the rule of Austria-Hungary, but it is also home of many Serbs and Slavs. The political objective of the assassination was to break Austria-Hungary's south-Slav provinces off so they could be combined into a Greater Serbia or a Yugoslavia. Because Austria-Hungary had an alliance with Germany, and Serbia had an alliance with Russia, who had alliances with Britain and France, a war was started. The world war consisted of 9 countries: Germany, Austro-Hungary, Russian Empire, Ottoman Empire, Britain, United States, France, Italy, China.

World War I ended when the parties in the war agreed to stop fighting, which is also called an armistice, on November 11, 1918. In the aftermath of World War I the political, cultural, and social order of the world was drastically changed in many places, even outside the areas directly involved in the war. New countries were formed, old ones were abolished, and international organizations were established.

Soilders prepare battle By: Nancy Marie Ott

Throughout armistice the Allies maintained the naval blockade of Germany that had begun during the war. A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. Blockades are the cornerstone to nearly all military campaigns and the tool of choice for economic warfare on an opposing nation. The blockade was not lifted until late June of 1919 when the Treaty of Versailles was signed by most of the combatant nations.


Treaty of Versailles


Signing of the Versailles Treaty peace commissioners

After the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919 officially ended the war. This 450 page article explains of how this war was started by Germany and they would be taking all responsibility for all the reparations. Germany had no choice but to sign the treaty because it was either that or continue the war and get their country totally taken over. The treaty also included a clause to create the League of Nations. The US Senate never ratified this treaty and the US did not join the League, despite President Wilson's active campaigning in support of the League. The United States negotiated a separate peace with Germany, finalized in August 1921. Seeing as Germany accepted the blame for starting the war, they had to pay £6.6 billion in reparations. Germany had also had to reduce its army to 100 000 men, without tanks and was not allowed an air force. Germany lost land to France, Denmark, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Belgium. There was a socialist revolution which lead to the brief establishment of a communist Germany, the resignation of the Kaiser and the birth of the Weimar Republic.


Influenza Pandemic


A violent new type of disease originating in America where it was mistaken as the Spanish Flu was accidently brought to Europe. Infected Ameican soldiers carried this flu over. One in every four Americans had contracted the influenza virus. The disease spread rapidly through both the continental U.S. and Europe, eventually reaching around the globe, partially because many were weakened and exhausted by the famines of the World War. There is a an estimated number of about 50 million who died from this new disease worldwide.


Results in other nations

Germany

On the 28th of June, 1919, Germany was summoned to sign the Treaty of Versailles. Seeing as Germany accepted the blame for starting the war, they had to pay £6.6 billion in reparations. Germany had also had to reduce its army to 100 000 men, without tanks and was not allowed an air force. Germany lost land to France, Denmark, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Belgium.

1st Field Artillery Brigade, 1st Division, on occupation duty in Germany, August 1919 By: Ryan Cox

Russian Empire

Russia, already suffering socially and economically, was torn by a deadly civil war that left more than 5.5 million people dead and large areas of the country devastated. During the Russian Revolution and subsequent civil war, many non-Russian nations gained brief or longer lasting periods of independence. After World War I, the Soviet Union was fortunate that Germany had lost the war as it was able to reject the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Had the Soviets not been able to do so, huge portions of rich territory and population would have been lost to them.


Austro-Hungarian Empire

The people of the new Austro-Hungarian Empire lost faith in their allied countries, and even before the armistice in November, radical nationalism had already led to several declarations of independence in September and October 1918. due to progress of the war and lobbying by separatists from within and outside the Empire the Allied powers slowly began to recognise its nations as distinct entities. They became Austria and Hungary.


Ottoman Empire

At the end of the war, Allies occupied Istanbul. The fall of the empire led to the creation of the modern Middle East and Republic of Turkey. Parts of the Ottoman Empire on the Arabian Peninsula became part of what is today Saudi Arabia and Yemen.


Britain

In the United Kingdom, funding the war had a severe economic cost. From being the world's largest overseas investor, it became one of its biggest debtors with interest payments forming around 40% of all government spending.


United States

In the USA, disillusioned by the failure of the war to achieve the high ideals promised by President Woodrow Wilson, the American people chose isolationism and, after an initial recession enjoyed several years of unbalanced prosperity until the 1929 Stock Market crash. However, American commercial interests did finance Germany's rebuilding and reparations efforts, at least until the onset of the Great Depression.


Italy

After the war, Italy failed to annex Dalmatia (which had been promised by Britain and France in the Treaty of London to induce Italy to join the war), and had to fight some more years to annex the city of Fiume, which had an Italian population, and this led several Italian politicians to speak of a "mutilated victory". During the war, Italy had suffered fewer casualties than Britain and much fewer than France, and the social problems she was facing afterward were common to other Allied countries which, however, did not suffer an authoritarian drift.


China

The Republic of China who hoped to retake the Jiaozhou Bay occupied by Germany between 1898 and 1914 suffered diplomatic failure at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. The Chinese delegation also called for an end to Western imperialistic institutions in China, which was refused. Despite sending thousands of labourers to France during the war, China as an allied and victorious nation was refused the demand for the return of Jiaozhou Bay and the city was instead transferred to Japanese rule.

Analysis


World War I started when Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife was assassinated in Sarajevo. Because Austria-Hungary had an alliance with Germany, and Serbia had an alliance with Russia, who had alliances with Britain and France, a war was started. World War I ended when the parties in the war agreed to stop fighting, which is also called an armistice, on November 11, 1918. After the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919 officially ended the war. Because of the war a violent new type of disease originating in America where it was mistaken as the Spanish Flu was accidently brought to Europe.

Conclusion


Beyond the many casualties, and the many losses in the end World War I, there were as actually more gain than loss. Many nations after signing the peace treaty found themselves with more land than they started with and also many nations gained independence. The outcome of World War I, actually changed the world for the better. Many new types of government were formed and discovered. But all of this all began with the armistice. Without these Peace Commisioners the war would have still been going on for a while, and probably have alot more casualties.

References


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Sonsa, Paul. "The Great War (WWI) and its Aftermath: During the Great War". University Leiden. May 5, 2008. [[4]]

Shuster, Mike. "The Middle East and the West: WWI and Beyond". NPR. August 20, 2004. [[5]]

"World War I." Wikipedia. 8 May 2004. [[6]]